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An innovative environmentally friendly gelcoating technology for composites
for marine and wind-turbine applications to reduce VOC emissions, processing time and cost

InGeCt is a €1.4M project funded by the Framework Programme 7 (FP7) initiative to encourage Research for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME).  The main aim is to develop an innovative environmentally friendly gelcoating technology for composites for marine and wind-turbine applications to reduce VOC emissions, processing time and cost.

Gel coats are applied to fibre-reinforced composite materials for aesthetic or protection purposes. Styrene is an essential part of these gelcoats, with ~25% of this released during possessing.  These styrene emissions cause irritation and neurological effects as well as possibly being carcinogen.  One of the biggest negative effects of styrene is the perceived odour both by the workforce and neighbourhoods. As a result styrene emissions are limited under the Solvent Emissions Directive.  Although the adoption of closed mould technologies for the production of composite parts have gone a long way to reducing styrene emissions during manufacture, gelcoating must still be undertaken under open-mould conditions as no viable in-mould gelcoating technology is commercially available.  We are developing an innovative in-mould gel-coating process, requiring minimal equipment modification (and therefore low capital expenditure) based on the innovative application of low-viscocity gelcoats and a spacer fabric.  The proof-of-concept work undertaken to date has this technology has the potential to achieve significant benefits beyond the current state of the art to produce parts that are fit for purpose whilst reducing styrene emissions to <5ppm.

The overall aim of the InGeCt project is to develop technical textiles and gel-coat formulations in combination with process design and optimisation that will enable significant reductions in VOC emissions whilst reducing production times by 18.5% and manufacturing cost by 10.5%.  Our technology will therefore be very attractive to composites processors, giving significant economic and societal benefits to consumers and manufacturers.  The SME consortium target a significant penetration of the EU market within a 5 year period, achieving direct annual sales of over 100 million.  The technology will make a significant contribution to reducing VOC emissions, enabling EU SMEs to meet their immediate and forthcoming legislative requirements.

Project team attendees at the respective Review Meetings

Over the next few weeks, this section will be populated with non-confidential data arising from the project:

The project has considered two manufacturing technologies, referenced to traditional Hand-Painted Gel-Coating (HPGC):

  • Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) using a Double Glass Plate Mould (DGPM) tool for flat plates, and
  • Resin Infusion under Flexible Tooling (RIFT) with bagging film or a silicone counterface for complex components.

and two in-mould gel-coating techniques

  • In-Mould Gel-Coating (IMGC) with a separator fabric, and
  • In-Mould Surfacing (IMS) with a silicone shim.

The complex component mould tool consists of a contiguous pair of inverted tetrahedra surrounded by an annular channel as shown in section in Figure 1 and as a HPGC moulding in Figure 2

double-tetrahedron mould tool rotated double-tetrahedron mould tool   double-tetrahedron tool moulding
Figure 1: Section through the apices of the double tetrahedron moulding configuration (left) with rotation (right)   Figure 2: HPGC double tetrahedron moulding.

The research has shown significant reductions in styrene levels in the work-place from the adoption of the new technologies, when referenced to hand painted gel-coating, with typical values reported in Table 1 and Styrene (ppm) vs time plots on a separate page:

Table 1:  Styrene levels (and percentage reductions vs HPGC)
using the in-mould gel-coating techniques
  styrene level flat plate double tetrahedron
IMGC TWA (ppm) 0.24 (-99.7%) N/A
IMGC Ceiling (ppm) 36 (-96.5%) N/A
IMS TWA (ppm) 0.23 (-99.2%) 0.37 (-98.7%)
IMS Ceiling (ppm) 49 (-92.6%) 107 (-84.0%)
HPGC TWA (ppm) 71 29
HPGC Ceiling (ppm) 1017 668


This column is intended for consortium partners and monitoring bodies only.

Summary of progress against deliverables


Date Location Meeting
30-May 2011 Brussels (B) Negotiation
12-Jan-2012 Heathrow (GB) Kick-off
03-Feb-2012 Moordrecht (NL) DeIJ host YKI(SP)
23-May-2012 Plymouth (GB) PU host AHC
29-May-2012 Stockholm (SE) First review
14-Jun-2012 Brussels (B) Co-ordinators
04/05-Jul-12 Busto Arsizio (I) Centrocot host SP
23/24-Jul-12 Plymouth (GB) PU host Centrocot
05-Sep-2012 Delft (NL) LSBV site visit
06-Sep-2012 Moordrecht (NL) Second review
23-Oct-2012 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
31-Oct-2012 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
05-Nov-2012 Brussels (B) REA central review
07-Jan-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
31-Jan-2013 Plymouth Third review
01-Feb-2013 Plymouth Finance workshop
26-Apr-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
16-May-2013 Busto Arsizio (I) Fourth review
30/31-May-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
03/04-Jun-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
07-Jun-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
25-Jun-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
23-Aug-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
30-Oct-2013 Copenhagen (DK) Fifth review
15-Nov-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
18-Nov-2013 Saltash (GB) AHC host PU
   Webpage created by John Summerscales on 13 January 2012 and updated on 14-Feb-2019 14:48.